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Technical barriers to CTA trade covered by the WTO agreement on technical barriers to trade. References to the previous GATT agreement with the same name are referred to as “1979” TBT agreements 4. When adopting an appropriate level of health or plant health protection, members should consider the objective of minimizing negative commercial effects. The agreement on the application of sanitary and plant health measures (“SPS agreement”) came into force on 1 January 1995 with the creation of the World Trade Organization. This includes the application of food safety rules, veterinary and plant health legislation. The SPS agreement established a committee on health and plant health measures (the “SPS Committee”) to ensure the implementation of the SPS agreement on measures relating to food security or animal and plant health. Like other WTO committees, the SPS Committee is open to all WTO member countries. Governments that have observer status in the WTO`s senior bodies (such as the Goods Trade Council) may also be observers on the SPS committee. The committee agreed to invite representatives of several international intergovernmental organizations, including Codex, OIE, IPPC, WHO, UNCTAD and the International Organization for Standards (ISO), as observers. Governments can send officials they deem appropriate to attend SPS committee meetings and many send their food safety authorities or veterinary or plant health officials. 1 In this agreement, the reference to Article XX point b) also includes the chapter of this article. (Return to text) 2 For the purposes of Article 3, paragraph 3, a scientific justification is available when a member finds, on the basis of a review and evaluation of the available scientific information, in accordance with the relevant provisions of this agreement, that the relevant international standards, guidelines or recommendations are not sufficient to achieve its appropriate level of health or plant health protection. (Back to text) 3 For the purposes of Article 5, paragraph 6, a measure is no more restrictive than necessary for trade, unless there is another reasonably available measure, given the technical and economic feasibility, which reaches the appropriate level of health or plant health protection and is significantly less trade-restrictive.

(return to text) 4 For the purposes of these definitions, the animal includes fish and wildlife; The plant includes forests and wild flora; Parasites are weeds; and contaminants are residues of pesticides and veterinary drugs and foreign substances. (Back to the text) 5 Health and plant health measures such as laws, regulations or regulations that are of general application. (Return to text) 6 Where nationals are mentioned in this agreement, in the case of a separate customs territory that is a member of the WTO, the clause is considered to be a natural or legal person residing or having an effective and effective commercial or commercial establishment in that territory. (Back to text) 7 Control, inspection and authorisation procedures include sampling, testing and certification procedures, among other things. (Back to the text) reaffirming that no member should be prevented from taking or imposing measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health, provided that these measures are not applied in a way that would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustified discrimination between members if the conditions are identical or a disguised restriction of international trade; These include health and plant health measures to protect the health of fish and wildlife, as well as forests and wild plants. The SPS agreement strengthens the transparency of health and plant health measures. Countries should define SPS measures on the basis of an appropriate assessment of the actual risks they present and, upon request, indicate what factors they have considered, the assessment procedures they have followed and the level they deem acceptable.